Friday, December 30, 2022

Causes, symtoms and how to avoid testicular cancer

Testicular cancer affects more than millions of men worldwide each year. Two percent of all tumors in men are testicular cancers. However, among men under the age of 40, testicular cancer is the most prevalent kind of cancer. Therefore, this article will show you the reason and how to avoid testicular cancer in men because prevention is better than cure.

What is testicular cancer?

how to avoid testicular cancer
Testicular cancer lumps

A cancerous tumor that arises from the testicular tissues is called testicular cancer (male gonads located in the scrotum). Teenagers between the ages of 20 and 40 make up the risk group. Men who had an undescended testicle known as cryptorchidism as children are more likely to develop the condition.

As with all types of malignant neoplasms, testicular cancer is divided into phases based on how common it is. The destruction of the retroperitoneal lymph nodes and the elimination of metastases in other organs, most frequently the lungs and liver, are crucial factors. Stage I testicular cancer is characterized by the absence of metastases. Clinically speaking, a lesion of the retroperitoneal lymph nodes indicates stage II of the illness. Testicular cancer in stage III is characterized by mediastinum lymph node destruction or distant metastases (in the liver, bones, lungs, brain).

Testicular cancer is quite uncommon. Three males out of every 100,000 get sick on average each year. The fact that the illness strikes men at a time when they are preparing for their futures in terms of family, school, and other aspects is really significant. If you don’t get treatment right away, the illness may ruin all of your goals.


Testicular cancer is therefore a dense tumor with a diameter of 50–60 mm that may be felt when palpated. Initially, a person may not be aware of it, but as the degenerative process progresses, symptoms including a general sense of discomfort, pain, and swelling may occur.

An ultrasound examination reveals many nodules that make up the malignant tumor itself. The diagnosis is typically cancer or sarcoma, which paralyzes the male reproductive system by metastasizing to the testicular body, albeit rarely to the abdominal organs. Men with testicular cancer may also experience other symptoms that are part of an acute pathological process.

The symptoms of testicular cancer
Lump in testicle and other symptoms

The symptoms of testicular cancer in men are as follows:

  • Visually noticeable change in the shape of the testicle.
  • Unilateral increase in organ size.
  • swelling of the scrotum.
  • Pain along the spermatic cord.
  • Enlarged lymph nodes.
  • The development of pain in the lower abdomen.
  • Pain in the back and chest.
  • The development of pneumonia.
  • Breathing problems.
  • Exacerbation of chronic diseases.

Additionally, the increased production of hormones causes the emergence of endocrine diseases and secondary sexual symptoms, which can substantially alter a person’s appearance. Therefore, it’s important to understand the symptoms and indicators of testicular cancer as well as its developmental characteristics. Therefore, it is crucial that you see a doctor as soon as any unfavorable symptoms appear. Although early cancer is more challenging to diagnose, it is considerably better treated, and the likelihood of recurrence is drastically decreased.

Causes and risk factors of testicular cancer

In most situations, the exact cause of testicular cancer is unknown.

Doctors are aware that when healthy cells in a testis change, testicular cancer develops. Your body’s healthy cells divide and grow in an organized fashion to maintain regular physiological function. However, occasionally, certain cells become aberrant, leading to this expansion to spiral out of control. These cancer cells continue to divide even when more cells aren’t required. In the testicle, the collecting cells create a mass.

The cells in the testicles that create immature sperm, or germ cells, are where the majority of testicular malignancies start. It is unknown what leads germ cells to degenerate and give rise to cancer.

Causes and risk factors of testicular cancer
Causes and risk factors of testicular cancer

Risk factors potentially affecting testicular cancer in men include:

  • Heredity;
  • Scrotal injury;
  • Undescended testicle or congenital underdevelopment of the testicles;
  • Nevi and moles, which can degenerate into malignant tumors;
  • Diseases of endocrine pathology;
  • Radiation, radiation, chemical effects;
  • Constant overheating of the scrotum;
  • Early puberty of the boy;
  • Unhealthy lifestyle: abuse of nicotine, alcohol, lack of activity.


The afflicted testis is always removed as the first step in treatment for testicular cancer. Additional strategies are based on the histological features of the tumor, the clinical stage of the disease, the blood level of tumor markers, or changes in those indicators over the course of observation. An interdisciplinary oncology meeting determines the treatment strategy at LISOD.

The surgical excision of the testis is typically followed by radiation therapy for the abdominal lymph nodes in cases of seminoma testicular tumors that are in clinical stages I or II, and chemotherapy and removal of the retroperitoneal lymph nodes in cases of more advanced cancers. 95% of people who have testicular cancer in the I and II clinical stages are capable of making a full recovery.

Testicular cancers with nonseminoma are less responsive to radiation therapy. Following a radical orchidectomy (the full removal of the testis), the following treatments are utilized if the patient has stage I nonseminoma testicular cancer:

  • Surgical removal of altered abdominal lymph nodes;
  • Chemotherapy;
  • Long-term observation (the risk of disease progression is more than 20%).

For stage II nonseminoma testicular cancer, there are other treatment options:

  • Surgical removal of retroperitoneal (retroperitoneal) lymph nodes followed by chemotherapy;
  • Chemotherapy, and then, depending on the results, surgical removal of the retroperitoneal lymph nodes.

How to avoid testicular cancer

How to avoid testicular cancer
Preventing testicular cancer

To reduce the risk of developing testicular cancer, you must adhere to the following preventive measures:

  • Regularly (at least once a month) conduct self-examination of the scrotum and testicles for various seals, formations, changes in size, etc.
  • If any incomprehensible changes appear, seek advice from a urologist, andrologist.
  • Lead a healthy lifestyle: give up smoking, alcohol, spend enough time in motion, eat healthy food.
  • Eliminate overheating of the scrotum, as well as wearing too tight rubbing clothes.
  • Avoid various injuries of the genital organs. If the injury did occur, be sure to see an andrologist.
  • Attention to one’s own health will help to avoid serious consequences or detect testicular cancer at the very initial stage, which will significantly increase the chances of recovery.


You should understand how to avoid testicular cancer and do not become alarmed if you experience testicular cancer symptoms. Frequently, testicular changes are not cancer. But if you want to determine what is causing your problems, you should see a doctor.

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